Major-General John Francis Cradock M P

Christchurch Cathedral Dublin 2019 by Donaldylong
Sir J. F. Cradock
Cradock Sword 2019 Olympia Auction
General Cradock's letter
Castlebar, County Mayo

This Irishman distinguished himself in a military career He was an active politician.  He received an honour from the British Crown.

John Francis Cradock was born on 11th August 1759. He was the son of the Archbishop of Dublin, Ireland. [i]

This site has an image plus the following information that J.F. Cradock was born in Henrietta Street, Dublin.  He was son of Mary & John Cradock, Archbishop of Dublin.  His son was John 2nd Baron of Howden & Grimston (George J Homes 1st December 2016):

He was the grandson of Dr. John Cradock (1708-1778) [ii]


John Francis Cradock, first Baron Howden (1762-1839) was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. [iii]

John Francis Cradock was admitted to St. John’s College in Cambridge during 1775. [iv]

He received his education at Eton College in 1814.


John Cradock married on 17th November 1798 Lady Theodosia Sarah Frances Meade (born c. 1773-d. 13th December 1853 daughter of John Meade 1st Earl of Clanwilliam) [v]

They had two children; son John who became the 2nd Baron Howden also Francis Ann Grout (nee Howden) [vi]

Army Career

John Francis Cradock enlisted in the British army as a cornet in the 4th Horse. He transferred two years later to the Coldstream Guards.  He was appointed Major in the 13th Regiment of Foot.  During 1789 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel in the West Indies.   During 1798 promoted to Major-General.  He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army from 1803 to 1807.  During the Peninsula War Major-General Cradock Commanded the Portuguese Forces until 1809. [vii]

John Cradock was wounded at the captured Martinique in 1793; on the Campaigns conclusion he received the gratitude of Parliament.  He was then promoted Colonel of the 127th Regiment.  On the 1st  October 1795 he was appointed Assistant-Quartermaster-General.  Promoted during 1797 to Quartermaster-General in Ireland also later promoted Major General on 1st of January 1790.  He received Command of the 2nd Brigade at Minorca.  Again, he engaged in battles on the 8th, 13th also 21st of March in the Egyptian campaign.  He accompanied General Hutchinson as second in command during the advance in Cairo but fell ill following the surrender.  He was provided with the Command of seven thousand men on his recovery in Corsica.  (H. M. Stephens The Great Karoo) [viii]

John Francis Cradock purchased a commission as Major in the 12th Dragoons but exchanged it for a post with the 13th Foot.  Following the Portuguese campaign Cradock commanded the 43rd (Monmouthshire) Light Infantry.  The year previously he had been appointed to command the second Battalion of the 54th Foot then placed on half-pay when that battalion was reduced in 1802.  During 1803 he was appointed to the 71st Foot. [ix]

Cradock commanded troops in Ireland, Madras also Lisbon. He was also involved in the advance to Cairo with the Egyptian military according to this link:


Cradock commanded troops at Vinegar Hill during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.  Also against the French forces who had landed at Killala in Mayo.  He suffered another injury at Balinamuck. [x]


John Francis Cradock was appointed for a brief period Governor of Gibraltar.  He served as Governor of Cape Colony from 1811-1814. [xi]


Cradock acted as a politician who held various seats for Irish constituencies from 1785-1801. [xii]

John Francis Cradock sat in the House of Commons for Clogher from 1785 – 1790, for Castlebar from 1790 – 1797, also for Middleton in Co. Cork also Thomastown in Co. Kilkenny.  He acted as second to the Right Hon. Issac Corry Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer on 17th February 1800 at the duel in the Phoenix Park in Dublin.  (Stephens) [xiii]


On 19th October 1819 John Francis Cradock became the 1st Baron Howden in Ireland. [xiv]

John Francis Cradock was created on 7th September 1831 a peer of the United Kingdom as Lord Howden of Howden & Grimston County York. (Stephens) [xv]

Name Change

General John Francis Cradock KGB also 1st Baron Howden changed his surname during 1820 to Caradock. [xvi]

Sir John Francis Caradoc Lord Howden (1762-1839) changed his surname from Craddock to Caradoc during 1820. [xvii]


John Cradock Baron Howden was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in Britain. [xviii]


Baron Howden J. F. Caradock’s demise occurred on 26th July 1839. [xix]

General J. F. Caradoc demise occurred when he was aged seventy-nine years on 6th December 1839 in Grimston, Norfolk in Britain (George J Homes 1st December 2016):

Additional Information

The official correspondence & papers of the 1st Baron Howden (1811-14) are referenced at this link:

A stipple engraving by J. Codby after Sir Thomas Lawrence was published by E. Orme 2nd January 1809 in an online Collection at the National Army Museum also the National Gallery of Ireland.   It may be viewed at these links:   /

This site refers to General John Francis Cradock GCB (1759-1839) 1st Baron Howden, British peer, soldier, politician also Governor of the Cape Colony 1811-1814, eponym of Cradock South Australia:

A long-autographed letter signed ‘Howden’  to B. C. Williams discussed family legacies also historical backgrounds. (4 pp. 12 x 8 inches) Grimston, Tadcaster 22nd March 1825.  It may be viewed at this link:

Olympia auctions had Officer Cradock’s sword on 4th December 2019 Lot No. 284 on offer.  It belonged to a 1796 pattern infantry officer it may be viewed at this site:

General J. F. Cradock / Caradoc is referenced in this PDF:

General J. F. Cradock named the town of Clanwilliam in the Western Cape after his father-in-law, John Meade 1st Earl of Clanwilliam. [xx]

Publications that reference General Cradoc are among the following:

The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book 1820 vol 11 3rd edition London

Caradoc John  in Stephen Leslie ed of Dictionary of National Biography 1887 (9 & 12) Blacker Beaver Henry Small (Elder & Son London)

Raper P. E 1989 Dictionary of Southern African Place Names  (Jonathan Ball Publishers)

Chartrand Rene 2012 Oldest Allies – Alcantara 1809  (Osprey Publishing) [xxi]

Glover Michael 1976 Sir John Cradock and the Garrison of Almeida  vol 54 no. 220 (pages 225-260) Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research.   It may be downloaded at this link:

Sir John Cradock is referenced in the Dictionary of National Biography 1855-1900 vol 09 by Henry Morse Stephens: 


[i] Cape Colony ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[ii] Cradock Hon ( [ Assessed 19th February 2021]

[iii] A fine 1796 Pattern ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[iv] John Cradock (,_1st_Baron_Howden) [Assessed 20th February 2021]

[v] Ibid

[vi] Cape Colony ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[vii] Ibid

[viii] Sir John Cradock ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[ix] John Cradock (,_1st_Baron_Howden) [Assessed 20th February 2021]

[x] Cape Colony ( [assessed 19th February 2021]

[xi] Ibid

[xii] Ibid

[xiii] Sir John Cradock ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[xiv] Cape Colony ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[xv] Sir John Cradock ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[xvi] John Cradock (,_1st_Baron_Howden) [Assessed 20th February 2021]

[xvii] Craddock Family Crest ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[xviii] John Cradock (,_1st_Baron_Howden) [Assessed 20th February 2021]

[xix] Cape Colony ( [Assessed 19th February 2021]

[xx] John Cradock (,_1st_Baron_Howden) [Assessed 20th February 2021]

[xxi] Ibid


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