Various Viaducts

Boyne Viaduct 2001 by Wilson Adams
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boyne_Viaduct_-_geograph.org.uk_-_315651.jpg

Viaducts are a specific long series of bridges supported by spans or arches between pillars.  They were related to Aqueducts in that both were originally designed by the Romans.  Viaducts were constructed over rivers, lakes, roads or valleys for the use of railway lines.[i]

The term Viaduct refers to long bridges or even a series of bridges that are connected by arches over water or land.  They usually connect two points of landscape similar in height to carry rail traffic.[ii]

According to J. P. Mc Dermott of Newport Historical Society the name Viaduct is a derivative of Latin ‘Via’ plus ‘Ducere.  The Viaduct crossings were constructed in cities or towns within Ireland for railway traffic.  Land based Viaducts connected parts of similar heights of the landscapes as crossings over valleys, rivers, or roadways.[iii]

Several viaducts still intact or disused are mentioned below:

Athlone

This Athlone Viaduct was constructed by the Midland Great Western Railway Company to serve the Dublin Broadstone to Galway line.  The engineer of the project was G. W. Hemans with Fox Henderson & Co.  the principal contractors involved.  The viaduct was located to the north of Athlone Town centre.  The amazing bridge was a magnificent statement of the great Victorian period of industrial expansion during the age of Brunel.  Construction began during 1850 of this six – span wrought – iron railway bridge over the Shannon River.  The bridge rested on six pairs of iron Doric shafts while the two widest spans had latticed elliptical girders.  The piers are either end were constructed with rusticated limestone.  For the first time within Ireland this type of technique was a major feat of engineering when the compressed air allowed the sinking of the cylinders to form the piers.  This Viaduct opened during 1851.  Originally designed to open to allow the passing of river traffic along the Shannon the middle section was changed to a fixed section during 1972.  (National Inventory of Architectural Heritage. Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht. 2014)  Registered Number 15004129.  Coordinates are 203649, 241879.  (date recorded 8th September 2004.) [iv]

The engineer in charge of the construction of the Athlone viaduct was G. W. Hemans, the contractors were Fox and Henderson.  Construction began in 1850, it was completed in eighteen months.  It was an amazing feat of engineering as iron-work was shipped to Limerick then transported by barge to Athlone.  The viaduct had a length of five hundred & forty feet.  It had a central span of one hundred & twenty feet that opened to allow ships passage on the Shannon.  This spectacular bridge according to T. P. O’Connor was regarded as ‘of all the prospects he had seen in Europe, the sight dearest to him was the graceful railway bridge over the Shannon at Athlone.’[v]

The construction of the railway bridge across the Shannon at Athlone was hailed as the single greatest engineering feat during the construction of the Dublin-Galway line.  This bridge was designed by G. W. Hemans with contractors Messrs. Fox & Henderson responsible for the transportation by barge of the massive iron – work from Limerick.  This structure was five hundred & forty – two feet in length.  This bridge had an opened central span to accommodate tall sailing vessels.  Constructed with twelve cylindrical pillars of ten feet the Chief Engineer Mr Milner demonstrated the historical art by means of compressed air in the placement of those in position during 1850.  On Monday, 21st July 1851 the first train crossed the viaduct over the Shannon in Athlone.  An Image may be viewed on this site.[vi]

The construction of the Athlone Railway Bridge during 1851 led to the subsequent development of mainline rail lines to Galway City plus to Westport. [vii]

The Athlone Viaduct was also known as The White Bridge.  This viaduct was constructed over eighteen months from 1851.  It was designed by G. W. Hemans.  The ironwork was shipped to Limerick, it was transferred to Athlone by barge, it had a central span that opened to accommodate tall sailing craft.  The viaduct was one hundred & sixty – five metres in length.  The twelve cylindrical pillars each were 3.0 metres in diameter.  The opening central span was thirty – seven metres in length, later during 1972 it was changed to a fixed section.  The bridge is listed in the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage under number 15004129.[viii]

An etching of the Athlone Viaduct of 1926 by Percy Francis Gethin was published in Mary Chamot, Dennis Farr & Martin Butlin, The Modern British Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture, London 1964, I (may be viewed at The Tate Gallery) or at this link: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/gethin-athlone-n04174

Boyne

Dated 1855 the eighteen – span limestone & iron bridge designed by Sir John Mac Neill was constructed over the river Boyne.  Drogheda Railway Station lies to the South of viaduct.  Construction included fifteen round – headed stone arches, three of them erected North of the river plus twelve on the South side.  A three – span wrought – iron bolted girder with trussed section crossed the river, it had a segmental arched central section.  The structure consisted of rock faced ashler limestone walling to abutments & spandrels, tooled – block – & start quoins that ran from the base of abutments to tooled limestone stringcourse at springing line also tooled limestone voussoirs to arches.  At deck level there was tooled limestone stringcourse surmounted by rock – faced snecked limestone parapet also tooled limestone to parapet.  There was rock – faced ashlar limestone cutwaters with tooled limestone stringcourse surmounted by curved stone caps.  Channelled limestone piers surmounted abutments to either side of trussed steel spans also roll – moulded rough – punched cornice surmounted by saddle – backed cap.  There was a sandstone Plaque to the east & west pier elevation with an inscription of ‘Belfast and Dublin Junction Railway,’ the City Crests also ‘1885.’  During 1932 the three spans over the Boyne were replaced with iron trusses by The Motherwell Bridge Engineering Company, the Chief Engineer was G. P. Howden.  Registered Number 13620012.  Coordinates are 309806, 275386.  There is an image of the viaduct on the site. (date recorded 22nd July 2005) [ix]

The Boyne Viaduct is a railway route from Dublin to Belfast.  Sir John MacNeill, an Irish Civil Engineer designed the viaduct.  Construction began during 1853, it was completed in 1855.  It is thirty metres in hight.  It crosses the River Boyne in Drogheda County Louth.  When constructed the Viaduct was the seventh bridge of its kind in the world also considered one of the wonders of that age.[x]

The Great Northern route of the GNR crosses the river Boyne at Drogheda in County Louth.  Sir John Mc Neill designed the lattice girder bridge of iron which was (at that time) the longest in the world.  William Even tendered a quotation of £68,000 so construction with limestone from Skerries began during 1851.  The structure is one thousand sixty feet in length.  It consists of fifteen semi – circular masonry arch spans of bridge of which twelve are on the South side with three on the North side.  There are three girder spans of wrought – iron: two of which are one hundred & forty – one feet between bearings plus one of two hundred & sixty – seven feet.  These span the quays, waterways plus public roads.  Once the line had a double line of track.  The first train crossed the Viaduct on 5th January 1855.  Information on bridge formation etc may be read also on this site. (The Argus 26th August 2005) [xi]

Publication that may be of interest: ‘Crossing the Boyne: The Great Viaduct 1855 – 2005 –  2005 Share Bernard Iarnroad Eireann is reviewed on this site by the author of ‘The Railway Town’ Jack Mc Quillen at this link: https://www.independent.ie/regionals/argus/lifestyle/building-the-boyne-viaduct-26901269.html

The Boyne Viaduct is mentioned at this link six – part RTÉ One documentary series with Esras Films with Brian Gray: https://architecturefoundation.ie/news/building-ireland-on-rte/

Ballyvoyle

The Ballyvole in County Waterford viaduct was opened during 1878.  The remains of the earlier viaduct on site are important as evidence of the introduction of the railway network to this locality by the Fishguard and Rosslare Railways & Harbours Company during the late nineteenth century as part of the development of the Great Southern Railway line.  Constructed during 1923 the four – span railway viaduct over the Dalligan River & Valley incorporated the fabric of the original viaduct.  Constructed with mass – concrete tapered pylon piers with coping.  Coursed square rubble limestone abutments walls continued into parapets on stringcourses with cut – stone coping.  The viaduct had a series of four – flat cast – iron spans on cast – iron girders & trusses also sections of iron railings to parapets.  The railway line was decommissioned during 1982.  (Both structures are of additional significance in the locality as the ‘before’ and ‘after’ viaducts that followed an episode that related to the Civil War movement in the county 1919 – 1922.)  Registered Number 22903205.  Coordinates are 233735, 96055.  There is an image of the viaduct on the site.  (date recorded 5th January 2004) [xii]

This viaduct with the history of the Civil War episode is mentioned at this link: https://www.deisegreenway.com/greenway.php

 Barrow

The Barrow Viaduct was a bridge erected to a design by John Chaloner Smith (1827-95) Chief Engineer to the Dublin, Wicklow & Wexford Railway (DWWR) Company.  It was constructed as a five – span railway viaduct over the River Barrow.  This line opened during 1887 by the Dublin, Wicklow & Wexford Railway (DWWR) Company.  It closed during 1963.  Registered Number 15702906.  Coordinates are 271728, 129602.  (date recorded 8th January 2008).[xiii]

Corrib

This railway line was constructed over the River Corrib plus crossed over Connemara to Clifden from Galway City by the Midland Great Western Railway Company that had been awarded £264,000 during the 1890’s by the Government.  The line to Clifden was opened on 1st July 1895 at a cost of £9,000 per mile.  The imposing steel viaduct had three spans of one hundred fifty feet.  It had a bascule type lifting navigation of twenty – one feet.  There were thirty bridges in total on the line.  The railway viaduct closed during 1935.  The metalwork was dismantled, just the piers of viaduct remain.  There is an image on this site of the viaduct over the Salmon Weir in Galway.[xiv]

Craigmore

This railway viaduct in Bessbrook County Armagh is known locally as the ‘Eighteen Arches.’  It was designed by Irish Engineer John Benjamin Mc Neill. This railway bridge is above the Newry – Camlough Road in County Armagh.  Construction began during 1849 for this Dublin – Belfast Junction Railway line.  It opened during 1852 with eighteen arches of a sixty feet span.  The highest span was one hundred & sixty feet.  (This was an interesting feature in Armagh of the construction during 1851 of the Egyptian Arch on the Newry section of the Dublin – Belfast line).  It was a collaboration between Engineer Sir John Mc Neill & Constructor William Dargan.

There is an image on this site; (https://www.archiseek.com/2011/1851-macneills-egyptian-arch-newry-co-armagh/)

Images of this viaduct feature on the Craigmore: (https://www.archiseek.com/2011/1852-craigmore-viaduct-bessbrook-co-armagh/

Durrow

Durrow or The Oak Plain Viaduct was constructed then opened during 1878.  This Durrow viaduct spanned the River Tay Valley also a road.  During the late nineteenth century this viaduct was evidence of the development of the Civil Engineering Heritage of this country with the Great Southern Railway Line by the Fishguard & Rosslare Railways & Harbours Company.  Constructed with stone plus random rubble limestone walls this viaduct has seven – arches.  The tapered piers had rock – faced cut – limestone quoins to the corners.  There was rock – faced cut – limestone string / spring courses.  The random rubble stone parapets on the cut – limestone stringcourse had verified blue clay coping.  The series of seven round arches had rock – faced cut – limestone voussoirs, quoined voussoirs plus with squared rubble stone soffits of rendered remains.  The railway line with viaduct was decommissioned during 1982.  This page has several images of the viaduct.  Registered Number 22902401.  Coordinates are 233956, 98742. (date recorded 5th January 2004)[xv]

No longer in use this Durrow viaduct is mentioned on this link: https://www.deisegreenway.com/greenway.php

This link has an image of this viaduct: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22Durrow_Viaduct,_Stradbally,_Co._Laois%22_is_probably_not…_(30138786200).jpg

Kilmacthomas

Constructed during 1875 to 1880 the Kilmacthomas viaduct was constructed over the road to a design of James Otway. (1843 – 1906).  It was opened during 1878 included the single spanned section to the centre.  There were square rubble limestone walls with batter to the North West.  It had cut – stone stringcourse also cut – stone coping to parapets.  A series of seven round arches on square rubble stone piers has rusticated cut – stone stringcourse to springs of arches.  There are dressed rubble limestone voussoirs with square rubble limestone soffits with traces of lime render.  Single cast – iron span to centre on cast – iron girders have lattice supports.  Sections of tabular iron railings were replaced circa 1950.  The viaduct was one of a pair in the locality (with 22805035 / WD -15 – 05 – 35.)  This viaduct is significant as a reminder of the development of the Great Southern & Western Railway line by the Waterford, Dungarvan & Lismore Railway Company during the late nineteenth century.  ((To the North West of viaduct is a freestanding Railway Signal circa 1950).  It closed during 1982. Registered Number 22805032.  Coordinates are 239510, 106211.  There is an image of viaduct on the site.   (date recorded 22nd July 2003) [xvi]

Newfoundwell

This link has an image from the air of the Newfoundwell railway viaduct in Drogheda:

https://mythicalireland.com/purchase/newfoundwell-viaduct/

A black & white image of the Newfoundwell railway viaduct in Drogheda by Albert Bridge of 30th May 1983 may be viewed at this link: https://www.geograph.ie/photo/3047381

Newport

The Newport viaduct is a seven – arch railway crossing over the Newport or Owennadarrydivva River on the Westport – Achill line.  It was opened during 1892, closed in 1934 then re -opened during 1936.  It had a series of segmental arches with drag edged rock faced cut – limestone ashler voussoirs that centred on drag edged cut – limestone key stones.  Construction consisted of tuck pointed snecked rock faced sandstone walls.  These centred on a drag edged rock faced cut – limestone battered triangular cutwater piers that had dragged cut limestone pyramidal capping.  Drag edged rock faced cut – limestone chamfered stringcourse supported parapets.  There was drag edged rock faced cut – limestone coping centred on drag edged cut – limestone date stone with an inscription of ‘1892.’  This viaduct was an important structure of late nineteenth century on account of its connection with The Mayo Branch of The Midland Great Western Railway line (opened 1894) by The Midland Great Western Railway Company in that it resembled the Westport Viaduct designed by William Barrington. (see Westport 31212192.)  The railway line closed during 1937, now open as a pedestrian walkway.  Registered Number 31208018.  Coordinates 98461, 293859.  (date recorded 3rd November 2010) [xvii]

One beautiful feature of the Newport town heritage is its seven-arch viaduct.  It was constructed during 1892 over the Black Oak River to carry the Westport to Achill railway line.[xviii]

The Newport river flows towards the North – East corner of Clew Bay.  A Viaduct of red stone was erected over river during 1892.  It had a single – line track.  The length of the Viaduct was 30.5 feet plus it had a width of eighteen feet six inches.[xix]

The Newport Viaduct was constructed as one of the so – called ‘Balfour Lines’ named after Arthur J. Balfour (who introduced an Act that provided State assistance for the construction of light railways to disadvantaged areas within Ireland).  The Westport line extended to Newport then Mulrany onto Achill during the 1890’s.  The extended line opened during February 1894.  It was constructed with local fine cut stone with a seven arched bridge.  The line closed during 1937.  There is an image of the viaduct on this link.[xx]

This Viaduct at Newport in County Mayo spans the Newport or Black Oak River.  It was constructed with local red sandstone with some sandstone facings on its seven arches.  Over one thousand people were employed on the bridge during the late 1800’s as an extension of the Westport line.  The first train crossed over during February 1894, the line closed in September 1935.  The disused railway line is used as a pedestrian walkway at the present time.[xxi]

The Newport Viaduct is an historic seven arches bridge constructed over the Black Oak river circa 1892.  It carried the Westport – Mulrany to Achill line of the Midland Great Western Railway Company.  It is listed as a Protected Structure number 112 on the Record of Protected Structures in County Mayo.  The constructed cost over £ 7,000.  It was a seven spanned square red sandstone structure with limestone detailing.  The Arch rings were sixty – one metres.  The single-track Viaduct had a length of ninety – three metres with a width of 5.64 metres.  The seven segmented arches had an eleven metres span with a rise of 3.81 metres.  The bridge piers with pointed cutwaters had a thickness of 1.8 metres.  The line had to await a nearby tunnel construction prior to its opening during 1894.  An image from 2011 is on this site.[xxii]

According to J. P. Mc Dermott of Newport Historical Society the name Viaduct is a derivative of Latin ‘Via’ plus ‘Ducere.  These Viaduct crossings were constructed in cities or towns within Ireland for railway traffic.  Land based Viaducts connected parts of similar heights of the landscapes as crossings over valleys, rivers, or roadways.[xxiii]

Publications that may be of interest:

‘The Mayo County Development Plan 2014 – 2020 Volume 4, List of Structures on the record of Protected Structures for County Mayo’ Mayo County Council 2014 may be viewed at this site: https://www.mayo.ie/planning/development-plans-strategies

‘Civil Engineering – Ireland’ 1998 Cox Ronald C. & Gould Michael M. Thomas Telford mentions Newport Viaduct, (page 2) at this link.

The Heritage Trail – Newport Viaduct 2007 – 2013’ from the Department Environment, Community local Government.[xxiv]

There is an image by Garry Wynne of the Newport Viaduct that opened during 1894 on this link: https://www.pinterest.ie/pin/336784878365062298/

This site has an image of Newport Viaduct: http://www.askaboutireland.ie/learning-zone/primary-students/looking-at-places/mayo/aspects-of-mayo/history-of-transport-in-m/bridges/

An image by Joseph Myschyshyn from 2013 of Newport County Mayo – Seven – Arch Railway Viaduct over Black Oak River may be viewed at this link: http://www.realizedvision.com/railways.php

Several images of Newport Viaduct may be viewed at this link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Seven_Arches_Bridge_(Newport)

Suir

The viaduct in County Tipperary was a triple span railway viaduct between Limerick & Rosslare Harbour.  It was constructed during 1852 over the River Suir in Cahir.  It has elaborate limestone details to the massive masonry piers & abutments.  There is crenelated turret – faces towards the ends of the bridge.[xxv]

Taylorstown

This County Wexford viaduct was constructed by Sir Robert McAlpine & Company Glasgow over two years from 1904 to 1906.  It spanned the Owenduff River valley.  This seven-arched viaduct opened during 1906.  The viaduct was constructed with red brick English bond walls centred on red brick English bond piers upon precast concrete chamfered cushion courses on plinths.  There were precast concrete stringcourses that supported parapets that had precast concrete coping centred on corbelled pedestrian refuges.  There were a series of seven round arches with red brick header bond voussoirs.  The viaduct was damaged during the ‘The Troubles’ of 1919 – 23 then reconstructed in 1923.  Registered Number 15704015.  Coordinates are 282029, 114584.  Images of this viaduct are featured on this page.  (date recorded 27th September 2009) [xxvi]

Taylorstown Viaduct is listed as a Protected Structures on this PDF: https://www.wexfordcoco.ie/sites/default/files/content/Planning/WexCoPlan13-19/Volume2.pdf

This link has an image of the CIE locomotive 005S (with a Wellingtonbridge – Campile beet transfer) as she crosses the seven – arch Taylorstown viaduct that spaned the Owenduff River in Co. Wexford. (Albert Bridge 26th October 1984): https://www.geograph.ie/photo/2851422

According to the article at this site Taylorstown railway viaduct was destroyed during Wexford’s Civil War: https://wexfordcivilwararchaeology.com/2021/03/04/wexfords-civil-war-the-destruction-of-the-bridges/

Another German bomber during WW2 attacked the nearby railway viaduct at Taylorstown. (25th August 2010): http://cllrjoeryan.blogspot.com/2010/08/campile-70-years-on-can-make-us-tink.html

An image of Taylorstown Viaduct may be viewed at this page: https://elevation.maplogs.com/poi/1_kilmannan_cleristown_co_wexford_ireland.72224.html

An image of the Taylorstown Viaduct dated 6th November 1978 may be viewed at this link: https://www.steamtrainsireland.com/members/galleries/93/south-wexford-railtour-1978

Taylorstown Viaduct is mentioned on this link: http://ariadne-portal.dcu.gr/page/27445726

Taylorstown Viaduct was the longest railway bridge in Ireland at six hundred & fifty metres long.  It closed to rail traffic during 2010 when the Rosslare to Waterford line closed.  (August 2009): https://www.antaisce.org/barrow-viaduct-greatisland

Thomastown

This viaduct designed by Charles R. Galwey originally opened during 1877.  The bridge was designed for the Waterford & Central Ireland Railway Company.  It was constructed with a wooden central span of timber latticed girders.  When proved unsatisfactory Galwey re designed a metal central span.  The newer design had two iron bowstring girders of two hundred & twelve feet apart.  They had a height of twenty – five feet at the highest point.  The total length of the bridge was four hundred & twenty – eight feet of railway track.  Sketches on this page were from ‘The Engineer’ dated 19th April 1879.[xxvii]

Westport

The nine -arch viaduct over the Westport or Carrowbeg river was dated 1892(?).  It was erected to a design attributed to William Barrington (1825 – 95) of Limerick (Gould 1998, 200 -1.)  This viaduct was opened during 1894, it was closed in 1934 the re – opened during 1936.  It was constructed with pointed snecked rock faced limestone walls centred on tuck pointed snecked rock faced limestone battered piers with drag edged rock faced – cut – stone – limestone coping.  There is a series of nine segmental arches with drag – edged rock – faced ashlar voussoirs centred on drag edged rock faced cut – limestone keystones.  The rock – faced surface finish demonstrated excellent workmanship.  The elegant ‘sweep’ of the arches makes a dramatic visual statement as it crosses the Carrowbeg river.  The viaduct finally closed during 1937.  It now is a pedestrian walkway.  Registered Number 31212192.  Coordinates are 100379, 284373.  There is an image of the viaduct on the site.  (date recorded 15th August 2008) [xxviii]

This site has a Lawrence Collection photograph by Robert French from 1865: http://catalogue.nli.ie/Record/vtls000322048/Map?ui=standard

Mike Reynolds has an image taken on 29th October 2016 of the Westport Viaduct that closed during 1937: https://www.flickr.com/photos/26144770@N04/30147681534

Footnotes

Information on bridge formation etc may be viewed on this site: https://www.independent.ie/regionals/argus/lifestyle/building-the-boyne-viaduct-26901269.html)

Garath Mc Cormack has several Viaduct images on this site: https://www.garethmccormack.com/product-tag/viaducts/

This disused Viaduct may be viewed on this site: http://www.iftn.ie/locationsireland/irishlocationstype/sublinks_static5/bridges/?act1=record&aid=90&rid=131&force=1&only=1&tpl=archive3locations

This disused Viaduct may be viewed at this link: https://www.ouririshheritage.org/content/archive/topics/irish-rail/borris-viaduct-2

Publications that refer to topic include:

This publication may be of interest ‘Roman Bridges’ 1994 O’Connor Colin Cambridge University Press available at this link: https://www.abebooks.co.uk/book-search/title/roman-bridges/author/colin/

Information re ‘Bridge Engineering’ 2014 Vol 167 Issue 3 Mc Carron Padraig & Mc Adam Aiden Published online 25th May 2015 may be viewed on this site:

https://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/full/10.1680/bren.13.00020

This site recalls the tragic January 1925 events of https://www.monreaghulsterscotscentre.com/owencarrow-viaduct/

The Cork to Bandon Viaduct is mentioned at this link six – part RTÉ One documentary series with Esras Films with Brian Gray: https://architecturefoundation.ie/news/building-ireland-on-rte/

The Gleensk disused viaduct that ran from Valentia Island Harbour to Farranfore Junction in County Cork is mentioned on this site: https://www.activeme.ie/guides/gleensk-railway-viaduct-kerry/

The disused County Clare Robertstown Viaduct is mentioned on this site: https://irishrailwaydevelopments.wordpress.com/2013/12/09/railfreight-from-foynes-again/

Bibliography

[i] Viaduct Bridges (https://www.britannica.com/technology/viaduct) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[ii] Viaduct (http://www.historyofbridges.com/facts-about-bridges/viaduct/) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[iii] The Railway Viaduct (https://www.mayo-ireland.ie/en/towns-villages/newport/history/the-railway-viaduct.html) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[iv] Shannon Railway Bridge (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/15004129/shannon-railway-bridge-grace-road-ranelagh-athlone-westmeath) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[v] Buildings of Note (https://web.archive.org/web/20140626012749/http://www.athlone.ie/history/buildings-of-note) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[vi] Athlone (http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/environment-geography/transport/midland-great-western-rai/athlone/the-railway-viaduct-athlo/) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[vii] Railway Bridge (http://www.realizedvision.com/railways.php) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[viii] Athlone Railway Bridge (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athlone_Railway_Bridge) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[ix] Boyne Valley Viaduct (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/13620012/boyne-valley-viaduct-yellowbatter-drogheda-county-louth) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[x] Ireland’s Iconic Bridges (https://www.irelandbeforeyoudie.com/irelands-most-iconic-bridges/) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[xi] Boyne (https://www.independent.ie/regionals/argus/lifestyle/building-the-boyne-viaduct-26901269.html) [assessed 25th March 2021]

[xii] Ballyvoyle (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/22903205/ballyvoyle-railway-viaduct-ballyvoyle-waterford) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xiii] Barrow Viaduct (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/15702906/barrow-viaduct-mountelliott-wexford) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xiv] 1893 Corrib Viaduct (https://www.archiseek.com/2013/clifden-railway-viaduct-galway/) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xv] Durrow Railway Viaduct (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/22902401/durrow-railway-viaduct-durrow-county-waterford) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xvi] Kilmacthomas (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/22805032/kilmacthomas-railway-viaduct-kilmacthomas-kilmacthomas-waterford) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xvii] Newport (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/31208018/carrowbaun-burr-by-newport-county-mayo-3) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xviii] Local Info (https://www.mayodarkskyfestival.ie/local-info) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xix] Bridges (http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/environment-geography/transport/transport-infrastructure-/bridges/) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xx] Heritage Trail (http://www.newportmayo.ie/h-viaduct.html) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxi] The Railway Viaduct (https://www.mayo-ireland.ie/en/towns-villages/newport/history/the-railway-viaduct.html) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxii] Seven Arches Bridge (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Arches_Bridge_(Newport)) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxiii] The Railway Viaduct (https://www.mayo-ireland.ie/en/towns-villages/newport/history/the-railway-viaduct.html) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxiv] Seven Arches Bridge (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Arches_Bridge_(Newport)) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxv] 1852 Suir Railway Viaduct (https://www.archiseek.com/2009/1852-suir-railway-viaduct-cahir-co-tipperary/) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xxvi] Taylorstown Viaduct (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/15704015/taylorstown-viaduct-loughnageer-county-wexford) [assessed 27th March 2021]

[xxvii] 1877 Viaduct (https://www.archiseek.com/2014/1877-nore-viaduct-co-waterford/) [assessed 26th March 2021]

[xxviii] Knockranny (https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/buildings-search/building/31212192/cahernamart-westport-county-mayo) [assessed 26th March 2021]

 

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