Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn  

Cashel Bay Co. Galway 2007 ArseniuriDe Gallium
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cashel_0427.JPG
Achonry Cathedral 2011 JohnArmagh
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AchonryCathedral.jpg
Bealadangan Bridge, Co. Galway 2018 Newberrt 12
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:County_Galway_-_Bealadangan_Bridge_-_20180903083119.jpg
Map of Sligo in Ireland
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ireland_location_Sligo.jpg
Dunguaire Castle, Co. Galway 2011 DC Chadwick
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dunguaire_Castle_County_Galway_Ireland.jpg
Stickman at Straide Friary
Author's Collection
Straide, Co. Mayo

Bard

Known as ‘The Matchstick Man of Straide’ Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn was one of the Country’s greatest Poets.

Lineage

His father Mathghamhain (d. 1585) & grandfather Maolmhuire were also Poets who practised the Family Profession in a direct line of descent from Tadhg Óg Ó hUiginn (qv) (d. 1448). (Caball, Marc) https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

His father was Mathghamhain mac Maolmhuiren but his mother’s name was unknown.  This site has a Family Tree: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn was a Member of Family of Distinguished Poets from Levney, Co. Sligo.  The earliest report of these Ó‘hÚigínn’s was a Tadhg Óg. (d.1315)  The name Tadhg was passed down to a son (d. 1391) also his son (d.1448.)  The following Generation had Maol Mhuire: (whose son Mathghamhain Mac Maolmhuir’s demise occurred during 1585).[i]

Youth

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn was born circa 1550.  His  father was Tadhg Óg but his mother’s name is unknown.  His oldest brother Fearghal Ruadh;s demise occurred whilst in his youth.  He had a brother Maol Múire Archbishop of Tuam. (d.1590) (Knott Eleanor) [ii]

There is no information on Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn Mother or his Wife:https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (late-Gaelic era Poet) was a family member of a Professional Poets from North Connacht.  (His mother’s name was unknown)  Maolmhuire. was a direct descendant of Tadg Óg Ó hUiginn (died 1448) prominent Poet of his day & era.[iii]

Family

Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn has a daughter Maire also a son Tadhg Óg. He inherited his father’s land at Dooghorne in Achonry. (Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [iv]

Knott Eleanor claimed that there was another brother Tomultach who was known as a ‘Rhymer.’ (Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [v]

Tadgh Dall Ó hÚigínn had a daughter Máire: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn

Stick Man

The well – known late – Gaelic era poet Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn was often referred to as the ‘Bard of Straide’ or the ‘Match – Stick Man of Straide.[vi]

Called Dall (‘blind‘) suggested that Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn’s vision was poor or absent: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn

Education

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn received Training within his family circle also at the Bardic School of Cill Clunaigh where former Ancestors studied.  Subjects besides poetry were taught at the School ie. history, sagas, genealogy also traditional lore.  (Carney Noel) [vii]

Tadhg Óg reported that students were sorry to hear the cuckoo’s first song as they then had to break up for that term: (his quote) ‘O ye who were in the house & sough the Art & residence well might it be hateful to you to hear the utterances of the cuckoo.’ (Owens Séan) ‘As the Waters Flow –  Banada through the Years.’ [viii]

Tadhg Dall received his bardic training within his Family Clan.  It was possible that he studied at a Bardic School in Ceall Cluaine  (in modern Co. Galway) that was associated with the Ó hUiginn Bardic family: https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383)

Bardic Schools

Kilclooney Castle was a bardic school which was possibly constructed during the fifteenth / sixteenth centuries.  During 1574 the Castle was occupied by Donell Ó ‘hÚigínn.  There were three separate parts of the School held by Brien, Hugh also Tully during 1641. [ix]

The renowned Ó ‘hÚigínn Family Established  the school..  The students studied filíoch for twelve years.  The Castle was known as (Ciil Cluanaig Church of the Meadow that suggested tit was a site with Cells)  Traces of Stone Structures near the ruins of the Old Church are visible. (Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [x]

Records portray that Donell Ó ‘hÚigínn was in Position during 1574 when he concluded that ‘a well renowned bardic school’ had its days numbered.  There is very left of the original Tower House ruins.  The ground floor with its vaulted roof & part of the second story remains.  There are remains of a Bawn or an enclosed Lawn that possibly may have been lightly defended beside it.(Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [xi]

An image of the ruined first floor of Cill Kilclooney may be viewed at this link: https://www.geograph.ie/photo/2329534)

A news item from a Claremorris Reporter for ‘The Western People’ 28th February 1903 referred to Kilclooney Castle. (page 13) [xii]

Studies

The students studied filíoch for twelve years. (Carney Noel 25th February 2019) : https://milltown.galwaycommunityheritage.org/

Tadhg Dall referred in a poem (see below) that students attended from Ulster & Scotland.  The Cells provided privacy for students to study.  Pupils not only had to remember what they had written but it was required that they recite the lesson verbatim!  The Academic Year lasted from November to the following March with a Christmas break.  (Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [xiii]

So apparently the Kilclooney pupils had to not only write but also remember what they wrote and be able to recite it all verbatim.  There were some curious ideas about student life including the rather bizarre suggestion that they would lay on their backs in their cells with stones on their chests to assist concentration.  It is hard to comprehend the thinking behind that particular rule if indeed it was true.’ (Carney Noel 25th Feb 2019) [xiv]

Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn recalled the Ulster students at the Bardic school within this poem: ‘Cáslean Chell Cluaine agus Scoil na bFile,

‘Seacht bhfir dhéag d’éigaibh Uladh

Do chuaidh d’larraich ealadhan

Dal an chuaine fhinn Ultaigh

Go o Cill Chluaine I g Connachtaibh.’ [xv]

Property

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn possessed Lands at Doughrane, Achonry also at Coolrecuil at Kilmatigue apart from various other sites.  Knott Eleanor translated his works for the ‘Irish Text Society’.  She suggested that those lands were originally Granted to his Ancestors by the Sligo O ‘Conner Don family:https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn had lands at Achonry, Kilmactigue with numerous lands scattered throughout Co. Sligo: https://straideprideofplace.ie/historical-cultural-society/

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn possessed lands at Doughrarane in Achonry also Coolrecuil in Kilmactigue, various lands were situated  among other areas in Co. Sligo. [xvi]

Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn became one of the largest native Landowners in the County.  He was appointed Sheriff of Sligo in 1634 plus selected as a Delegate to the Confederate Assembly in Kilkenny during the 1960’s. [xvii]

Sheriff

Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn was appointed Sheriff of Sligo in 1634.(O’Dowd (pages 58/ 9): https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

County Juror

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn served as a Juror n various Inquisitions taken in Sligo during 1584 & 1590.  He was described as ‘Tege Dall O Higgen de Dughorne’ & ‘Thadeus O Higgin de Cowlerecoll’:  https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn was appointed as a Juror in the County: https://infogalactic.com/

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn served as a Juror in Co. Sligo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn

Publications

A constant Theme throughout Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s Manuscripts included a distinct sense of Irish Nationalism as he was acutely aware of the late sixteenth century Political Situation.  Irish sovereignty that was under threat from Britain appeared in numerous his poems.  He produced Invasion Studies in the ‘Lebor Gabel Erenn.’  Several  of his Compositions were included in ‘The Book of O ‘Conner Don’ also several are compiled in the O ‘Gadha Manuscript (Ostend 1631 & Brussels / Lille c,1658): (these are available to peruse at RIA MS 23 F16) (Knott Eleanor) [xviii]

‘The Book of the Burkes’ is one surviving Manuscript created by Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn with Dommhall’s son Ruaidhrí Ó ‘hÚiginn. Dommhall. (b. 1574 who was the scribe ofLeabhar Cloinne Aodha Buidh.’) [xix]

Status

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn enjoyed a high status during his lifetime as reflected in the Notable Lords to whom he addressed his Poetry.[xx]

Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn enjoyed high status during his lifetime.  He was welcomed at the Great Houses of Ireland where he was wined & dined extremely well by the Hosts.  It was a reflected in the Lords also the Powerful & Influential Leaders that he performed his poems to.  An indication of his Status among Contemporaries during the following Decades were the numerous Compositions found in Important Compilations of that era.[xxi]

His selection during the 1640’s as a Delegate to the Confederate Assembly in Kilkenny reflected his local Sanding & Influence (O’Dowd (pages 58/ 9): https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

Addresses

The Lords & Chiefs addressed by Tadhg Dall  Ó hUiginn’s Poetry included the following: Aodh Mac Seáin Ó Broin (d. 1579), Seaán mac Oliver Bourke, Lord of Mac William Íochtar (also called ‘John Burke’ died 1580), Brían na Múrtha Ó Ruairc (died 1591), Conn Ó Dónaill (died 1583), Myler Burke  (died 1586) Turlough Luineach O’Neill (died 1595) Cú Chonnacht Mag Uidhir (died 1589), Aodh Ó Dónaill (died 1600), Aodh Mag Uidhir (died 1600), The 7th Baron Dunsany Patrick Plunkett, (died 1601) also Cormac Ó hEadhra (died 1612) [xxii]

United Ireland

In a Poem Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn endeavoured to push the leader of the Clan to unite all the Clans against England: a challenge that Brian O ‘Rourke obeyed.  Calls to unify against England or against some local enemy were a frequent Theme in the Bardic Poems of that time.  The Province had split into small divisions under separate Leaders as each fought for their own piece of Land.  Numerous Bards believed that a United Ireland would give Irish People a better chance of fending off the enemy.  Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn’s address was possibly recited during 1566. (below are the first & last stanzas)

‘The man of war is he who dwells in safety,

A well-worn adage that shall never cease,

Save only when it girdeth on its armour

May many-wooded Banba hope for peace.

Why sit ye still? the Clans of valorous Eoghan,

The Clans of Conn and Conor round you stand;

Do ye not hear the troops of Saxon England

March o’er your plains and trample down your land?

Let Brian, son of Brian, son of Eoghan,

Ponder if one man ever came away,

Arouse thee, valiant Brian of the Bulwarks!

And God be with the champions of the Gael!

The children of the seed of Conn and Eoghan

Stand round thee; canst thou fail?’ [xxiii]

Signatory

Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn was a Signatory to the 1585 Composition of Connaught re the Elizabethan Government’s hold over the West of Ireland. (Marsh’s Library) (‘Modern History’ (1500 – 1700)’ Features Issues (Sept – Oct 2012) Vol 20. [xxiv]

Controversy

Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn once became involved in a bitter dispute between two Branches of the Ó hEadhra (O’Hara) family, the Ó hEadhra Buí (Yellow) & the Ó hEadhra Rua (Red) clan: https://amayodruid.blogspot.com

Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn was involved in an unfortunate dispute between two branches of the Ó hEadhra (O’Hara) family or the Ó hEadhra Buí (Yellow) Clan with the Ó hEadhra Rua (Red) clan: https://straideprideofplace.ie/historical-cultural-society/

Customs

As was the custom in Ancient Ireland Poets or Bards Composed works to highlight the Hospitably or Nobility of the Chieftains.  Those reports would have enhanced the Reputation of the Ruling Chiefs.  The result of a Bard’s Contribution would then have been reflected on.  If the result was Positive the Reputation of the Chieftain would be enhanced in the eyes of  people through the public reading of the Poem or Verse.[xxv]

One specific Poem by Bard Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn referenced his visit to Cormac O ‘Hara of the O ‘Hara Bui’ Clan that was received with extremely favourable hospitality.  He praised the Chief’s Clan members in battle, their genealogy & lineage.[xxvi]

Within Connacht another Branch of the O ‘Hara Rua became extremely angered at Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn successes. (previously they had been in contention with him in a matter of a Land Title) https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/:

Retaliation

O ‘Hara Rua Clan perceived the success of Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn as another insult.  They decided to retaliate.  One night (while he was absent from home) six members O ‘Hara Rua broke into his house, they stole food & drink.[xxvii]

Later the Clan feared that Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn would recall or report on their activities.  Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn did produce a Poem with the result that the O ‘Hara Rua became a laughing – stock throughout the Country.  Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s sharp tongue cost him his life at Banada Corpus Christie Friary one Sunday afternoon during 1591. [xxviii]

Unfortunately his satirical Poem that referred to the six robbers of the Ó ‘Eadhra family of Cashel Carragh, Kilmacteige led to a disastrous conclusion. [xxix]

Ambush

Several members of the O ‘Hara Rua family ambushed Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn.  He managed to escape: he fled to the nearby Priory where he requested Protection of God’s House.  As the Prior was a member of O Hara Rua Clan he refused Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s request. [xxx]

Demise

The ambush resulted in the horrifying demise of the Poet at just forty – one years of age on 31st March 1591.  (The death of his wife & child were ordered at the same time) [xxxi]

According to Legend Tadgh was murdered in Banada Co.Sligo at the Corpus Christi Friary (on a Sunday afternoon of March 1591) by members of the Ó hEadhra Rua clan: https://straideprideofplace.ie/historical-cultural-society/

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn met a very traumatic demise circa 1591 as result of a feud with members of the O’Hara family:https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

His son Tadg Óg Ó hÚigínn was nine years old when his father was killed by members of the Ó hEadhra.   He inherited his Father’s Lands at Dooghorne in Achonry.[xxxii]

Straide Abbey

Tadgh Dall O ‘Huigínn was buried in the grounds of Straide Friary as his Ancestors had lived in the area.  The grave is marked by a simple Gravestone Marker that is inscribed with a carving of a Matchstick Man superimposed on a Celtic Cross: http://www.straideparish.com/sample/wp-content/uploads/POPfinal.pdf)

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn is interred in Straide Friary in Co. Mayo where his grave is marked with the image of a ‘Stickman.’ [xxxiii]

According to this site it was believed that Tadgh Dall O ‘Huigínn was buried within the Grounds of Straide Abbey:https://straideprideofplace.ie/historical-cultural-society/:

Aftermath

Those six O ‘Hara Rua family assassins responsible were eventually apprehended during 1593  They were sent to Sligo for trial but due to lack of witnesses or evidence they were all released. [xxxiv]

An inquisition was held during 1593 at Ballymote, Co. Sligo where it was recorded that Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn had died at Coolrecuil on the last day of March 1591. (Knott Eleanor) [xxxv]

A Chancery Inquisition held during 1617 provided evidence that members of the Ó hEadhra family of Cashel Carragh, Kilmacteige were responsible in 1591 for  ‘murdering one Teige Dall O Higgen [sic] his wife and childe in the year one thousand five hundred nineteen and one or thereabouts.’ [xxxvi]

In an Inquisition taken at Ballymote during 1593 it was testified that Tadhg Dall had died at ‘Cowlrecoyll’ on the last day of March 1591.  Also that his son Tadhg Óg was aged nine years at the time of his father’s death.  He became his Legitimate Heir (page 15):https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-a6383

The murderers were eventually captured.  Brought to Sligo for trial trial for their crime during 1593.  Due to  lack of witnesses & evidence they were released without charge: https://straideprideofplace.ie/historical-cultural-society/

Those six O ‘Hara Rua family assassins responsible were eventually apprehended during 1593  They were sent to Sligo for trial but due to lack of witnesses or evidence they were all released. [xxxvii]

Tributes

Daniel William ‘Tiomna Nuadh’ praised Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s Contribution in the opening pages of his translation into Irish of ‘The New Testament’.  He said that he had relied on him to proof – read his work prior to printing.  Seaán Ó Cearnaigh trial – printed a broadsheet during 1571 that contained a Poem re ‘Judgement Day’ by the fifteenth century Poet Pilip ‘Bocht’ Ó ‘hÚigínn. [xxxviii]

Tadhg Dall O ‘hÚigínn was a Signatory to the 1585 Composition of Connaught that sought to extend the Elizabethan Government’s hold over the West of Ireland. (Marsh’s Library) (‘Modern History (1500 -1700)’ ‘Features’ Issues (Sept – Oct 2012) Vol 20. [xxxix]

Knott Eleanor penned that ‘He shows in most of his poems a calm acceptation of the contemporary strife as though it were the natural order.  Poetry flourished on it, & for him, like most bardic poets, the profession was the thing.  The apprehension & sorrows which troubled Irish Poets of a slightly later period did not affect Tadhg Dall.  Shadows palpable enough to us in his own poems, portended no disaster to him.  We may take him as a typical figure, the roughly adapted in mind & customs to the existing order: utterly unaware of the imminent dawn of a new world.’  Quoted may be viewed in MacCana’s Prionsias’s 1984 ‘Early Irish Ideology & the Life Concept of Unity, The Irish Mind’ (ed). Richard Kearney) Vol 1  Dable Wolfhound Press (page 76) [xl]

Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn was described as ‘The Chief Teacher of the Poets of Ireland & Scotland.’ Carney Noel 25th February 2019) [xli]

Footnotes

During 1371 Tadhg Óg Ó ‘hÚigínn reported on the demise of his older brother: Poet Master & Teacher Fearghal Ruadh in ‘Lament for Fearghal Ruadh.’  That piece of Bardic Poetry served as a Metaphor: with the loss of his brother Feargal he worried re the possibility of the toppling of the Bardic Tradition as the Catholic Church competed in the Keeping of Records:

‘The death of Ann’s son took artists their joy:

Just as a plank breaks free from the side of a cask,

The protecting wall of poetry has ended.’[xlii]

A total of twenty-four poems was ascribed to Ó hUiginn in the ‘Book of O ‘Conor Don’ largely compiled by Dochartaigh Aodh Ó 1631 in Ostend.  Fifteen poems were directly attributed to him in the Ó Gadhra Manuscript (RIA MS 23 F 16) which was compiled in Brussels & Lille in the period 1655 – 9:https://www.dib.ie/index.php/biography/o-huiginn-tadhg-dall-

Tadhg Óg Ó ‘hÚigínn’s five Bardic Poems are mentioned at this link:https://celt.ucc.ie/published/T402563/text005.html

A list of Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s poetry is available on this site: https://celt.ucc.ie/published/T402563.html

There were forty extant Compositions attributed to Poet Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn  in ‘The Book of the O ‘Connor Don’ with additional material in a Collection by O ‘Loughain Michael Óg, O ‘Munchadh na Raihineach et el: that included ‘Fear ann Cloídhimh Críoch bhanbhha’ also ‘D’fior Chogaídh síotchain.’  He produced a Poem on a lump of rancid butter. [xliii]

Manuscripts are available in Digital Format free of charge, on the Irish Script on Screen Website of Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies: www.isos.dias.ie.

An article pertaining to the Bard is contained within the National Schools Collection: it may be viewed at this link:https://www.duchas.ie/en/cbes/4672112/4671255

Images that reference this article from 1st June 2015 by Silent Owl may be viewed here: https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/

Tadhg Óg Ó ‘hÚigínn (b.1582) was described during 1603 as a ‘Rhymer. [xliv]

Tadhg Óg’s grandson Pól Ó ‘hÚigínn (1628? – 1724) was a Scholar & a Protestant Preacher.  (Knott Eleanor) [xlv]

Tadhg Óg’s grandson, Pól Ó hUiginn (c. 1628 – 1724) was a Scholar who was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1668 in Rome.[xlvi]

This PDF may be of interest:https://scholarworks.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1417&context=honorstheses

Publications that reference Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn include the following:

Ó Macháin DIAS Professor Pádraig in this work, ‘In Search of Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’ observed that in his short life Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn produced up to perhaps fifty poems: https://ohigginsclan.webs.com/insearchoftadhgdall.htm

Riggs Pádraigín 2010 London ‘The poetry of Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn: themes and sources’ in  ‘Dall Ó hUiginn: his historical and literary context’  (pages 55 – 8): https://celt.ucc.ie/published/T402563.html

McGuire James 2009 (University College Dublin) & Quinn (Royal Irish Academy) (eds) ‘Dictionary of Irish Biography: From the earliest times to the year 2002.’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (pages 576 – 578) [xlvii]

Ó Fiannachta Pádraig (ed) 1993 ‘Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn: foinse dá shaothar’ Pádraig An dán díreach Léachtaí Cholm Cille’ 24 (Maigh Nuad 1994) (pages 77 – 113) ‘Bás file’ Éigse 27 (pages 101 – 14) :https://www.dias.ie/2010/08/18/professor-padraig-o-machain/

MacLysaght Edward 1982 ‘More Irish Families’ Irish Academic Press. [xlviii]

Jonathon Bardon’s ‘A History of Ulster’ 1998 quoted Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’s advice to Henry Ó ‘Néill to remain in Ulster rather than attempting acceptance of Tadhg O ‘Brien’s Invitation to become High King then drive the English out. British Blackstaff Press. [xlix]

Williams J. E. Caerwyn &  Ford Patrick J. ‘The Irish Literary Tradition’: a Poem sung by Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn described a Christmas feast that Toirdhealbhach Luineach Ó ‘Néill provided for his Poets. (Owens Séan ‘As the Waters Flow – Banada through the years’) [l]

The Book of O ‘Conor Don’ 1631 (compiled at Ostend ) had twenty – four poems of Ó hUigin; whilst the Ó Gadhra Manuscript (RIA MS 23 F 16) was collected in Brussels & Lille during 1655 – 1659. That Edition included fifteen of his Compositions. [li]

Caball Marc October 2009 ‘Ó hUiginn, Tadhg Dall’ ‘Dictionary of Irish Biography’ Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. [lii]

Welch Robert 1996 ‘Oxford Companion to Irish Scotland. Literature’ referenced Tadhg Dall also the Ó ‘hÚigínn Family members: Mathghamhain (d.1585), Maol Mhuire, Archbishop of Tuam, Feargal (fl1400): whose son Brían was mentioned in the ‘Annals of Loch Cé’ as the Head of the Bardic Order within Ireland & England. Clarendon Oxford.[liii]

Boylan Henry 1988  provided a list of names & dates within ‘Dictionary of Irish Biography’ Domhnall (d.1502), Maolmuire (d.1591), Maolsheachlainn (fl.1430), Mathghamhain (d.1585), Tadhg Mór (fl.1400), Tadhg Óg (d.1448) also Tuathal (d.1450) Gill & Macmillen Dublin.[liv]

Two volumes of ‘The Bard Poems of Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn’ (1550 -1591) were written by Knott Eleanor 1920 /1926 London.[lv]

Palmer Patricia 2001 ‘Language and Conquest in Early Modern Ireland: English Renaissance Literature and Elizabethan Imperial Expansion’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (page 41) [lvi]

Cunningham Bernadette & Fitzpatrick Siobhán (ed) 2009 Dublin  ‘Bardic poetry in the Academy’s collection of Irish manuscripts’ Treasures of the Royal Irish Academy Library (pages 57 –  68) :https://www.dias.ie/2010/08/18/professor-padraig-o-machain/

Hull Eleanor 1913 ‘The Poem Book of the Gael’ (translations from Gaelic Poetry into English Prose & Verse)  One may peruse this EBook at this link: https://gutenberg.org/files/46917/46917-h/46917-h.htm

Bibliography

[i] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚiginn  (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[ii] Ibid

[iii] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[iv] Milltown’s Bardic School (https://milltown.galwaycommunityheritage.org/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[v] Ibid

[vi] Straide Parish (http://www.straideparish.com/sample/wp-content/uploads/POPfinal.pdf) [assessed 27th October 2020]

[vii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[viii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [assessed 28th September  2019 ]

[ix] Kilclooney Castle (https://visitgalway.ie/kilclooney-castle/) [assessed 28th September 2019]

[x] Milltown’s Bardic School (https://milltown.galwaycommunityheritage.org/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xi] Ibid

[xii] Threatened Destruction (https://westernpeople.ie/) [September 28th 2019]

[xiii] Milltown’s Bardic School (https://milltown.galwaycommunityheritage.org/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xiv]Ibid

[xv] Castle in Galway (https://visitgalway.ie/kilclooney-castle/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xvi] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xvii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xviii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xix] Kilclooney (https://howlingpixel.com/i-en/Kilclooney) [assessed 28th September 2019]

[xx]Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn  (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxi] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxii] Ibid

[xxiii] Long Lost Verses of Bardic Poets (https://oldmooresalmanac.com/) [assessed 30th September 2019

[xxiv] History Ireland (https://www.historyireland.com/) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xxv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [assessed 28th September  2019 ]

[xxvi] Ibid

[xxvii] Ibid

[xxviii]Ibid

[xxix] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxx] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [assessed 28th September 2019]

[xxxi] Ibid

[xxxii] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxxiii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [28th September 2019]

[xxxiv] Ibid

[xxxv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn  https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxxvi]  Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xxxvii] Ibid

[xxxviii] Ibid

[xxxix] History Ireland (https://www.historyireland.com/) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xl] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xli] Milltown’s Bardic School (https://milltown.galwaycommunityheritage.org/) [ assessed 29th September 2019]

[xlii] Long Lost Verses of Bardic Poets (https://oldmooresalmanac.com/) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xliii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[xliv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [assessed 28th September 2019

[xlv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xlvi] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[xlvii] Ibid

[xlviii] Ibid

[xlix] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[l] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://amayodruid.blogspot.com/) [assessed 28th September 2019]

[li] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[lii] Ibid

[liii] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[liv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (http://ricorso.net/rx/az-data/authors/o/OhUiginn_TD/life.htm) [assessed 30th September 2019]

[lv] Tadhg Dall Ó ‘hÚigínn (https://infogalactic.com/) [assessed 29th September 2019]

[lvi] Tadhg Dall Ó hUiginn (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadhg_Dall_%C3%93_hUiginn) [assessed 29th September 2019]

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